By Nick Oatley
This publication is a finished and authoritative account of the key realignment that has taken position in English regeneration coverage and perform because 1991. It analyzes the adjustments that have resulted in an emphasis in coverage on competitiveness, built-in ways to financial decline and social exclusion, and the shift clear of formula-driven investment mechanisms in the direction of arguable aggressive bidding. It additionally examines alterations in governance practices, the unfold of multisector partnerships, the `new localism' and the emergence of a freelance tradition. The e-book concludes with a precis of latest coverage subject matters and an review of the Labour Government's coverage proposals.
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Additional info for Cities, Economic Competition and Urban Policy
48. Duane H. Swank, ‘Political Institutions and Welfare State Restructuring. , New Politics of the Welfare State, pp. 197–237, p. 211. 88 Theoretically, George Tsebelis’ account of veto players provides the link between institutional fragmentation and public policy dynamics. According to Tsebelis,89 a veto player is a collective or individual actor whose approval is required to alter the status quo. Policy stability increases with the number of veto players, their ideological distance and internal cohesion.
Although Switzerland’s society is even more heterogeneous, cross-cutting cleavages dampen such centrifugal tendencies. Locally concentrated linguistic majorities do not coincide with particular denominational or political hegemonies. Minority protection is guaranteed by the device of giving smaller constituent units a greater weight in the federal decision-making process and not by opt-out clauses. The degree of societal homogeneity is also important for the distribution of jurisdictions between different branches of government in federal nations.
Marmor, ‘The Development of Welfare States in North America’, in Peter Flora and Arnold J. , The Development of Welfare States in Europe and America (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Press, 1987), pp. 81–121; Keith G. Banting, The Welfare State and Canadian Federalism, 2nd edn (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1987); Pierson, ‘Fragmented Welfare States’; Herbert Obinger, ‘Foderalismus ¨ und wohlfahrtsstaatliche Entwicklung. ¨ Osterreich und die Schweiz im Vergleich’, Politische Vierteljahresschrift, vol.